Friday, September 16, 2016

Somewhere where there's ... cheese!

A recent archaeological discovery in Denmark is believed to confirm that cheese was being made there in the Bronze Age. 

This article from discusses the discovery of a 3,000-year-old ceramic pot in central Jutland that was found to contain "a white-yellow crust" that the archaeologists had not seen before. Lab analysis tentatively identified bovine fat in the substance. From this, the archaeologists theorize that the crust is the remains of cow's milk that was being heated to make cheese, but had been overheated and burned, sticking to the pot. They also suggest that this kitchen accident is the reason the pot was discarded intact (and it remains intact even today)--so the guilty party would not be blamed for ruining an otherwise perfectly good pot. 

This incident reminds me of the burnt pretzel discovery that confirmed the making of pretzels in 18th century Bavaria. It goes to show that archaeology can often learn more about the material culture of the past from its trash than from items that were lovingly preserved.

Wednesday, September 7, 2016

The Future of Food?

Picture of a Sens food bar, from the Sens Foods Kickstarter page
Recently, I've posted about Soylent and MealSquares--recent inventions that are meant to be "complete" foods--items a person could live on indefinitely.  

This week, I learned about a food bar that its makers are producing, not as a complete food source. but as a sustainable one whose supply can easily be renewed, and a healthy, guilt-free, meat-like source of protein for vegans.  The source--crickets!

Apparently when they are ground up into a flour-like substance and baked into food bars, crickets make for great high-energy bars and protein bars, according to SENS Foods, the Czech company that makes them.  The Kickstarter for the product can be seen here.  The company will sell two varieties of protein bar (at least 20g of protein in each) and two varieties of energy bar, in appealing flavors (like dark chocolate and orange). Though the Kickstarter has 11 days to go, it has already made the necessary number of pledges, so it appears as though the Sens bars will become a reality.

I am very curious about the taste of Sens bars, but am not presently in a financial position to support the Kickstarter.  Nonetheless, the Sens project has given me food for thought.  Most food sources devised to address the issue of feeding large numbers of people sustainably (soy, vegemite) do not produce food I would be happy to eat on a long-term basis.  But so long as I don't have to crunch tiny legs and thoraxes, cricket protein is something I'd be willing to try.  I may be in a minority on this issue; my husband rejected the idea of cricket-based food before I'd even finished describing Sens Foods' product.   It will be interesting to see whether Sens Foods' product achieves broad acceptance, or becomes yet another footnote in the wider history of food.

EDIT: (9/7/2016)  Perhaps Sens Foods is slightly behind the curve. (and probably other places as well) sells cricket flour, so inspired consumers can make their own experiments.  See this page of search results.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

A "Square" Meal?

A few months ago I wrote about Soylent, the liquid meal substitute.  I was not impressed by it, either in concept or with regard to what I read about consuming it as a sensual experience.

A few nights ago, I followed a ad link to a website advertising a much newer product with a similar purpose, but rather different in design; the site can be found here.

The product in question is the MealSquare, a baked good of 400 calories per serving that, like Soylent, claims to be nutritionally complete.  Unlike Soylent, it requires significant chewing and has a discernible flavor. The FAQ describes a MealSquare as "dense, subtly sweet cornbread/pumpkin bread, with chocolate chips and sunflower seeds for added variety."

I find the approach the MealSquares people take toward their product to be more wholesome than that of the makers of Soylent.  For example, though they claim that you can get 100% of your minimum daily requirement of vitamins and mineral from MealSquares, and all the necessary calories, they admit that living solely on MealSquares is not "optimum for health." "For example, no substitute has been discovered for fish as part of a healthy diet (fish oil pills don't cut it)."

One MealSquare (photo from the website)
Looking through the FAQ and other parts of the website, the MealSquares approach to making its niche in the food industry is to emphasize the following factors about its product:  1) it is primarily made from whole foods such as whole grain oats, eggs, and milk; 2) it can easily be used as either a meal replacement or a snack, because they are square and can easily be cut into 4 100-calorie units of equal size; 3) the easy divisibility and exact calories make the produce useful for dieters, though it's unclear whether people attempting to live solely on MealSquares lose weight.

The MealSquares page states that the product is still in beta test mode.  However, the product is already available for sale.  For $90.00 USD (and they only sell within the US, at least for now), the company will send you a box of 30 MealSquares.  Thus, each 400 calorie square costs $3.00 (shipping is free).  Price discounts are available if you agree to have a specified number of boxes sent to you on a monthly basis. However, don't plan on stockpiling them.  MealSquares have a shelf life of only two weeks unrefrigerated and one month in the refrigerator, which makes them unusual as food bars go, and is a distinct disadvantage over the powdered version of Soylent, for example.  If you only wish to taste MealSquares, you can buy a package of just 10 squares for $29.00 (plus $5.95 shipping).

Unlike the reviews of Soylent, which read as though the reviewers wanted to like the product despite their reactions to its physical qualities, the Internet reviews of MealSquares have a negative tone even though the product is more physically appealing than Soylent.  This review from Business Insider gives useful information about the size of a Meal Square (a bit larger than an iPhone 5S), taste and texture (like "vegan banana bread" but dry; best consumed with milk or another beverage).

The author concludes:  "Some of my colleagues had less positive experiences, with the main complaint being the squares seemed to suck the moisture out of your mouth.  Indeed, if you didn't have anything to drink, it wasn't that enjoyable. I ate the squares for a few days, and while convenient, they didn't make me feel either healthier or unhealthier from a physical standpoint."  On the other hand, microwaving a MealSquare before eating, as the company recommends, makes it softer and melts the chocolate chips inside--a definite plus.

Another review, this one from reddit, notes that a Square is very filling and "takes a bit of time to eat"--advantages for a meal replacement bar.  The reviewer concluded that the product is "bland" but "quite dry and hard to eat when you're not that hungry.  Probably won't order again." But a third reviewer, who had been using Soylent regularly because he hates food, experimented with switching to MealSquares instead and had a more positive experience than he had had with Soylent.

It seems to me that, although there are definitely some people eager for a long-term easy-to-eat nutritionally complete single food like Soylent or MealSquares, most people prefer a more varied diet. Among people who really just want an occasional meal replacement or alternative, the extreme claims made for foods like Soylent or MealSquares are fast generating skepticism and a vague if general distaste.  That doesn't surprise me.  People's taste preferences in food differ widely.  It is hard to imagine any one food that would satisfy all of them, and attacking the problem by producing foods that are "meh" to everybody hardly qualifies as a win.

EDIT:  (8/16/2016)  Yes, I know that the checkerboard background on the photograph showing a MealSquare is almost violently fluorescent in appearance.  That's not my fault; that's how the photo appears on the company's website! 

Sunday, July 17, 2016

The Oldest Comfort Food

A few days ago, a friend posted this article from the American Schools of Oriental Research blog on Google Plus.  The article explains in some detail how we know what we know about the food cooked by the inhabitants of ancient (e.g., Biblical period) Israel.

In the web article, Cynthia Shafer-Elliott, Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible and Archaeology at William Jessup University in California, examined Biblical references to food, vegetables, legumes, and other foods known to grow or otherwise been available in the area for millennia, and available food preparation tools and techniques to support her conclusion that most Israelites often ate stew, probably on a daily basis.  Pottery usable for stewing has been found, as well as a kind of oven called the tannur (compare to the tandoor used in India), for baking flatbreads.  A photograph of a reconstructed tannur appears in Ms. Shafer-Elliott's web article.

Ms. Shafer-Elliott's conclusion that the early inhabitants of Israel stewed much of their food. makes sense in light of the practical difficulties of other forms of cooking technology, such as hard boiling, in the ancient and early medieval world.  Ms. Shafer-Elliott's article mentions a written Assyrian source that contains at least 100 different stews and soups.  The ancient Romans, including Roman legionaries, ate porridge (stewed grain) as a large part of their daily diet.  The Vikings likely enjoyed lots of stews and porridges, and Hungarian herdsmen of the same period were making goulash--a kind of stew--at the same time.  Meanwhile, at least 2,000 years ago, the Chinese were making soup, a fact we know because a little of one batch still survives.

Clearly, the crock-pot chef's favorite cooking style--take a heatable piece of crockery, put in some liquid and tasty food ingredients, and simmer for hours till done--has a long and honorable history.  It makes me feel a little bit connected to the past every time I make a stew or soup in my crock pot.

Tuesday, June 28, 2016

Two Quick Food Experiments--Punic Porridge and Posca

About six weeks ago, I decided to make two of the recipes featured on the Pass the Garum website, namely, "Punic Porridge" and posca.

Punic Porridge is a recipe Cato attributed to the Carthaginians.  It is a blend of wheat groats, cheese, and egg, sweetened with honey and flavored, only a bit speculatively, with cinnamon.  Pass the Garum recommended bulgar wheat or semolina and ricotta cheese (which predated the Romans), I used buckwheat groats and part-skim milk ricotta in my porridge.

The resulting porridge was soupy rather than creamy, with the groats still a bit chewy.  It was slightly sweet, but mostly bland.  If I make it again, I'll probably use more groats, even though doing so would abandon the 3-to-1 ratio of cheese to groats found in Cato's recipe.  Other possibilities include: 1) I used too much water; 2) I did not cook the groats for long enough. I can experiment with changing those variables another time.

Posca, the archetypal non-alcoholic drink of the Roman legionary, was something I'd been tempted to try for a while now.  Pass the Garum's blog included three possible recipes:  just water with vinegar; vinegar water with a bit of honey added; and vinegar water with honey and cardamom seeds added.  I opted for the vinegar and honey without other seasonings.  Pass the Garum's recipe calls for red wine vinegar, but apple cider vinegar was what I had available, so I used that.

My first problem with the recipe was in getting room-temperature honey to diffuse through cold water.  My honey was in a plastic jar that couldn't be microwaved, but microwaving the mug containing the posca itself helped a bit.  I didn't want to microwave it too much, though, because I didn't want the resulting beverage to be warm or hot.  Unlike the author of Pass the Garum, I couldn't taste any sweetness in the resulting liquid; it was very sharp.  The sharpness was not unpleasant at first, but it became increasingly hard to tolerate by the time I had finished the cup.  I will try making posca again with wine vinegar sometime; that may be less sharp than the cider vinegar.  In addition (or instead), I might also halve the amount of vinegar while leaving the amount of honey the same, and see whether I find the resulting flavor more appealing.

If any of my readers has tried either of these recipes, or has experimented with posca, please feel free to tell me about your results in the comments.

Sunday, May 8, 2016

Russian Kitchen

Have you ever been curious about what traditional Russian cooking is like?  I have. I still am.

Recently, I found a fascinating website that answers many questions I've had about Russian cuisine, and provides information I never would have thought to look for.  It's called Russian Kitchen and it contains a wealth of short-well-written and informative English language articles about foods and regional cuisine specialties from all over Russia, with beautiful color photographs as illustrations.

Here's a sample of some of the more interesting articles I've found so far in browsing the site:
  • Russia's eight strangest regional cuisines.  
  • Regional dishes from Western Siberia and Eastern Siberia.
  • Food and beverages from Karelia, Russia's "land of lakes"
  • Foods that you won't find outside of the regions of Russia in which they grow.
  • How to eat caviar Soviet style. (Note:  the answer is more complex than "washed down with lots of vodka").
  • The recipe for a now beloved dessert that arose from Soviet food shortages.
  • Russia's obsession with tea and how Russians believe tea should be made. 
There's much more, and the site appears to be added to almost daily.  It's part of a complex of sites called "Russia Behind the Headlines" that is sponsored by a Russian newspaper called Rossiyskaya Gazeta.

Whatever your feelings about Russia, its people, and its politics, Russian Kitchen is a lot of fun to browse.  I hope to try some of the more accessible recipes on the site.

Sunday, April 24, 2016

Swiss Cheese--older than we thought?

A new article from Science Daily reminds us that cheese making in ancient times was not limited to the Romans.

The article, which may be read here, describes a study of Iron Age pottery finds from six locations in the Swiss Alps. The study, conducted by a group of archaeologists spearheaded by the University of York and Newcastle University, concludes that the pots bear chemical residues which indicate that milk was heated in them.  The heating of milk, of course, is a necessary step for the making of most cheeses.   The pots date from the first millennium BCE.  A PLOS ONE article that gives technical information about the study may be read here. It notes that in the Swiss lowlands, similar evidence for cheese making dates back to the Neolithic, i.e. around the fourth millennium BCE.  

We cannot tell whether the cheese made tasted anything like Emmenthaler or Gruyere, two cheeses that are commonly thought of today when one considers Swiss cheese making, but the study results do demonstrate that the Swiss have engaged in cheese making for a long time.